History of Scotland

Scotland’s written history begins with the Romans. The Romans invaded Scotland in 80 AD led by Agricola. They advanced into southern Scotland and then marched into the northeast. In 84 the Romans severely defeated the Picts at a place called Mons Graupius (its exact location is unknown). However, in the years after the battle, the Romans slowly withdrew and in 123 Emperor Hadrian began building a wall to keep out the Picts.

Later in the second century, the Romans advanced again and in 140 they built the Antonine Wall from the Clyde to the Forth. However, the Romans finally abandoned the Antonine Wall in 196 AD. Afterward, Hadrians Wall became the frontier. The Romans advanced into Scotland again in 209 AD but only temporarily. In 367-68, the Picts took part in a great raid upon Roman Britain.

In the 6th century a people from Ireland called the Scots invaded what is now Scotland. They settled in what is now Argyll and founded the kingdom of Dalriada.

Meanwhile, Christian missionaries had begun the work of converting the Picts. Some Picts in southeast Scotland accepted Christianity in the 5th century. Columba who went there in 563 converted southwest Scotland to Christianity. He founded a monastery at Iona, which became very important in the history of Christianity in Britain. During the 6th and 7th centuries, Christianity spread across Scotland, and by the end of the 7th century, all of Scotland was Christian.

Further south in the 6th century Angles invaded Northeast England and they created the kingdom of Northumbria. In the early 7th century the Northumbrians expanded into southeast Scotland and as far as Dunbar and Edinburgh. Then, in 843 Kenneth MacAlpin who was king of the Scottish kingdom of Dalriada also became king of the Picts of northern and central Scotland. So the Scots and Picts merged to form a single kingdom.

Rosslyn Chapel, Dunfermline Abbey and Stirling Castle Day Tour from Edinburgh

Delve into Scotland’s rich history and heritage on this 1-day Rosslyn Chapel, Dunfermline Abbey and Stirling Castle tour from Edinburgh. Head from the Royal Mile over the UNESCO–listed Forth Bridge to Dunfermline with a guide, and explore the Abbey Kirk — burial place of Robert the Bruce. See where the Battle of Bannockburn raged and learn of Scotland’s struggle for independence. Take in top local attractions including Stirling Castle. Then, visit Rosslyn Chapel before returning to Edinburgh.

  • 1-day tour to Rosslyn Chapel, Dunfermline Abbey and Stirling Castle from Edinburgh
  • Cross the UNESCO–listed Forth Bridge for fine views
  • Visit the Abbey Kirk — where Robert the Bruce lies buried — with a guide
  • Learn of the Battle of Bannockburn and see where the fighting took place
  • Discover famous landmarks such as Stirling Castle, the Wallace Monument and Rosslyn Chapel
  • Tour includes round-trip travel from Edinburgh

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Culture in Scotland

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What are the best Culture in Scotland?

What Culture in Scotland are 1 hour or less?

What Culture in Scotland are taking additional safety precautions?

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Peterhead Prison Museum

Visit “Scotland’s Alcatraz”, long the country’s only high-security prison, without the hassle of waiting in line at the ticket office. Head straight inside and follow the audio tour to learn about the 125-year history of the former HM Convict Prison, including the infamous 1987 siege and Britain’s first state-owned railway. Walk through the galleries and halls as you listen to the stories of prison officers for a fully immersive experience.
  • Exclusive access to Scotland’s Peterhead high-security prison
  • Fast-track admission and an award-winning audio guide included
  • Choose the entrance time to fit your schedule and visit at your own pace
  • Follow the footsteps of former officers and inmates and hear their stories

Read more about Peterhead Prison Museum

Museums in Scotland

Guided Edinburgh Private Walking Tour

Embark on an enriching 3.5 or 7-hour walking tour of Edinburgh’s cultural and historical highlights with a private guide. While you listen to insightful commentary, you’ll visit iconic landmarks and hidden gems according to an itinerary tailored to your interests. Explore the cobbled streets of the Old Town, gaze at Edinburgh Castle on its rocky perch and ascend to the summit of Calton Hill for panoramic city views. On this private tour, you’ll receive the undivided attention of your guide while gaining unique insight into the Scottish capital.
  • Opt to visit iconic landmarks like Edinburgh Castle, Scott’s Monument and the Royal Mile
  • Gain fascinating insight into the history and heritage of Edinburgh
  • Tailor the itinerary of your tour according to your interests
  • Receive undivided attention from your private guide

Archaeology Tours in Scotland

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What are the best Archaeology Tours in Scotland?

What Archaeology Tours in Scotland are taking additional safety precautions

What Archaeology Tours in Scotland are good for avoiding crowds?

These hidden gems in Scotland may have limited interaction with crowds:

Inverness to Dunrobin Castle

See four northern Scotland highlights in a way impossible without the flexibility of a private car on this day trip from Inverness. Admire the Dornoch Firth from Struie Hill, watch for salmon jumping at the Falls of Shin, experience the halls, gardens, and falconry displays of Dunrobin Castle; and finish with a tour and whisky tasting at the Glenmorangie Distillery. Your private tour includes hotel pickup and drop-off for ease.
  • See four north Scotland sights on a door-to-door private tour from Inverness
  • Comfy and fuss-free way to visit several attractions, with a personal guide
  • Enjoy the Falls of Shin and Dunrobin’s halls, grounds, and falconry show
  • Sip a dram at the Glenmorangie Distillery and gaze over the Dornoch Firth

Read more about Inverness to Dunrobin Castle

Castle Tours in Scotland

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What are the best Castle Tours in Scotland?

What Castle Tours in Scotland are taking additional safety precautions?

What Castle Tours in Scotland are good for avoiding crowds?

These hidden gems in Scotland may have limited interaction with crowds:

Historical Tours in Scotland

The answers provided below are based on answers previously given by the tour provider to customers’ questions.
What are the best Historical Tours in Scotland?

What Historical Tours in Scotland are 1 hour or less?

What Historical Tours in Scotland are taking additional safety precautions?

What Historical Tours in Scotland are good for avoiding crowds?